Aciers ferritiques et martensitiques, y compris aciers à durcissement par précipitation

    Ferritic stainless steels have a microstructure of ferritic solid solution.
    The most important alloying elements of such steels are Cr and Mo. The ferritic, body-centred cubic solid solution structure is achieved by a special balance of alloying elements. In this context, Cr, Mo and others act as strong ferrite-stabilising elements. The elements stabilising the austenite such as Ni, Mn, C, N are usually kept very low. The Cr content of ferritic stainless steels is usually 12 to 28%. Especially for high-performance steels (Superferrites), extremely low C and N contents are aimed for, which has a positive effect on the toughness characteristics. Ni is added in small quantities as a toughness-promoting alloying element. Ferritic steels are strongly ferromagnetic.
    The corrosion resistance is essentially determined by the Cr and Mo content. The resistance to intergranular corrosion is determined by the free Cr content, i.e. the Cr content in the solid solution that has not set in the form of Cr carbides.
    In general, ferritic stainless steels have a slightly higher strength and are significantly more resistant to stress corrosion cracking than the austenitic Cr-Ni(Mo) steels. Formability, on the other hand, is comparatively poorer, as is toughness, which is also strongly dependent on the cross-section. Ferritic stainless steels also show a pronounced transition from ductile to brittle fracture behaviour with decreasing temperature.
    Due to these limitations, the application is generally limited to thin-walled products (sheets, strips, tubes) in all industrial sectors and in corrosive media, e.g. for household goods, chemical process technology, magnetic applications, etc.

    Martensitic stainless steels are ferromagnetic and, on the other hand, have a microstructure consisting mainly of a martensitic phase (carbon martensite) and possibly small amounts of secondary phases such as ferrite, austenite and carbides. Such steels are quenched and tempered to higher strengths by heat treatment – hardening and tempering. The Cr content is approx. 12 to 18% with proportions of Mo and Ni. Depending on the C and N content, these steels achieve high strengths and good wear resistance.
    However, martensitic stainless steels show lower toughness and a relatively high transition temperature, are difficult to weld and usually require subsequent heat treatment, which usually limits their application to non-welded parts.
    To achieve a martensitic structure, the Cr contents tend to be in the low range and part of the chromium is bound in carbide precipitates. Therefore, the corrosion resistance is comparatively lower and mostly below that of standard austenitic steels. For this reason, and also because of their limited toughness, martensitic stainless steels are used where higher strength and hardness are required, e.g. for cutlery, general mechanical engineering, shafts and fasteners.

    A special subgroup of martensitic stainless steels, the soft-martensitic and age-hardenable stainless steels (Super-martensite) achieve the martensitic structure not through C or N, but through higher Ni contents at low C and N contents. This is associated with higher toughness, better weldability and also higher corrosion resistance due to lower binding of Cr by C. Alloying elements such as Cu, Ti, Al are used to achieve hardenable alloy systems (PH-Steels), whereby an increase in strength is achieved through the precipitation of intermetallic from the martensite in the course of heat treatment.
    Common applications of such steels are mechanical engineering, e.g. fastening elements, shafts, springs, gears and lightweight construction, e.g. in the aerospace industry.

    BÖHLER Programme

     

    Nuance BÖHLER Application Segments Melting Route Désignation commerciale N° matière Norme
    - - -
    SEL -
    EN -
    UNS -
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Engineering
    Airmelted 420F-Mod
    SEL 1.4197
    EN X20CrNiMoS13-1
    UNS -
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM F899
    AMS -
    Autres -
    - - -
    SEL -
    EN -
    UNS -
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Aerospace
    Airmelted 431
    SEL 1.4044
    EN X15CrNi17-3
    UNS S43100
    AISI 431
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL 1.4044
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres AFNOR Z15CN16-02
    Engineering
    Airmelted + PESR X30
    SEL 1.4108
    EN X30CrMoN15-1
    UNS S42027
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN DIN SEW 400
    WL -
    ASTM F899
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Oil & Gas/CPI
    Land Based Turbines
    Airmelted F6NM
    SEL 1.4313
    EN X3CrNiMo13-4
    UNS S41500
    AISI -
    EN ISO 10088-3
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM A182/A182M
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Oil & Gas/CPI
    Airmelted -
    SEL 1.4418
    EN X4CrNiMo16-5-1
    UNS -
    AISI -
    EN ISO 10088-3
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres -
    - - -
    SEL 1.3541
    EN X46Cr13
    UNS S42000
    AISI 420
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres AFNOR Z40C14
    Engineering
    Airmelted 440A
    SEL -
    EN -
    UNS S44002
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM F899
    AMS -
    Autres -
    - - -
    SEL -
    EN -
    UNS -
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    EN ISO -
    DIN -
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    Autres -
    Engineering
    Airmelted -
    SEL 1.4112
    EN X90CrMoV18
    UNS -
    AISI -
    EN ISO 10088-3
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Aerospace
    Airmelted 440C
    SEL 1.4125
    EN Z100CD17
    UNS S44004
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS 5630
    Autres -
    Engineering
    Airmelted + Remelted 17-4 PH
    SEL 1.4542
    EN X5CrNiCuNb16-4
    UNS S17400
    AISI 630
    EN ISO 10088-3
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM F899
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Oil & Gas/CPI
    Airmelted + VAR 15-5 PH
    SEL 1.4545
    EN X5CrNiCu15-5
    UNS S15500
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM A564
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Aerospace
    Automotive
    VIM + VAR 13-8 Mo
    SEL 1.4534
    EN X3CrNiMoAl13-8-2
    UNS S13800
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM -
    AMS 5629
    Autres -
    Engineering
    VIM + VAR XM-13
    SEL 1.4534
    EN X3CrNiMoAl13-8-2
    UNS S13800
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM F899
    AMS -
    Autres -
    Engineering
    VIM + VAR Custom 465
    SEL -
    EN -
    UNS S46500
    AISI -
    EN ISO -
    DIN -
    WL -
    ASTM A564
    AMS -
    Autres -

    Contacts

    Simon Cathomen

    Chef de produit acier inoxydable, aciers de construction, base nickel


    +41 44 832 88 38

    E-Mail

    voestalpine High Performance Metals Suisse SA

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